Research

Current Research Activities

Towards a Secure and Resilient Energy System Cyberinfrastructure Using Software-Defined Networking

Principal Investigators: Matthew Caesar (University of Illinois); Kevin Jin (University of Arkansas)
Executive summary: Link to .pdf

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a technology with its roots in managing large enterprise data centers but has started to be considered for applications in operational technology networks. SDN enables (1) situational awareness of the entire grid with global visibility, (2) timely response to cyber-attacks through network direct programmability and traffic management, and (3) fine-grained analysis with rich information from both the communication network and the power system applications. The project will address the Zero-Trust Networking Needs Assessment through design of network segmentation, continuous monitoring and verification, and self-healing network architecture to enable resilient traffic delivery. It addresses the Energy System Protection Needs Assessment by exploring multiple SDN-aware applications targeting cyber- attack detection, mitigation, and prevention.  The research will include analysis of defense effectiveness against attacks, and will demonstrate how to dynamically construct the network to isolate compromised devices and optimally reroute traffic to mitigate the attacks.

Secure and Resilient Renewable Energy Integration with Real-Time Machine Learning

Principal Investigator: Jingxian Wu (University of Arkansas)
Executive summary: Link to .pdf

This project considers challenges faced by power grids that have significant components of renewal energy generation.   The meshing of renewal generation with transmission and distribution components induces complex problems of control and communication, which increases the potential for failures caused by system complexity, and/or direct cyber-intrusion.  This project considers the use of Real Time Machine Learning (RTML) algorithms that both learn and make decisions while the system is operating.  RTML will be used to design situation-aware scheduling algorithms that adaptively coordinate power generation, storage, and distribution among a large number of distributed energy sources, based on grid conditions.   RTML will also be used to develop low latency intrusion detection algorithms, which are unique in their emphasis demanding low-enough latency to be used operationally in the power grid, optimizing detection subject to the latency constraint. This enables remedial actions and/or counter measures can be taken in a timely manner to significantly reduce the damages and economic losses caused by cyberattacks. 

Distributed Edge Computing for Secure and Interoperable Energy Cyber-Physical Systems

Principal Investigators: Tung Lam Nguyen & Osama Mohammed (Florida International University)
Executive summary: Link to .pdf

This project observes that edge computing using IOT and clouds will inevitably penetrate energy systems significantly, and that that penetration brings with it a number of cyber-related challenges. Energy systems must be managed in real-time, and the latency of communication between them and external cloud infrastructure is an impediment.  The information passed to affect the management has to be kept private, secure, and support the interoperability of a wide range of information sources and consumers.   The key idea of this project is to consider a different architecture for integrating edge computing.  In this architecture the cloud technology is brought geographically closer to the energy system and is made resilient by distribution among several smaller computing sites. Devices that make measurements are given FPGA-endowed computing capability to off-load computation and communication from the computing core, and all of this is supported by a communication infrastructure that is sparse and is specifically engineered to support real-time communication among the grid and distributed computing elements. This project uses sophisticated emulation and simulation capabilities to evaluate designs, as well as study of prototypes on a testbed.

GRIDSHIELD: Detecting Patient Zero Threats in Distributed Energy Ecosystem

Principal Investigator: Amin Kharraz (Florida International University)
Executive summary: Link to .pdf

This project proposes a machine-learning enabled layer, GRIDSHIELD, to learn the intricacies of grid operations automatically, and use this knowledge to detect anomalies that can be the evidence of intrusions or as-yet-undetected compromises of devices in the grid control system.  The project's key contributions are in (i) development of a run-time forensics engine for distributed energy systems, (ii) development of data structures and techniques for gathering, cataloging, learning from, and analyzing spatial-temporal observations from the grid, in real-time, (iii) assessment of behavioral intents of the connected devices, predicted divergence from expected behavior, and generation of  automated responses, and (iv) case studies which illuminate these ideas.

Cyber-Physical Multi-factor Authentication for Autonomous Edge Security in Energy Systems

Investigators: Jennifer Berhard, Yih-Chun Hu, and Heather Filippini (University of Illinois)
Executive summary: Link to .pdf

As energy systems increase their reliance on edge devices, they increase their dependency on the data those devices provide and increase their vulnerability to malicious manipulation of the data these devices report, and indeed, in the authenticity of the devices themselves.   Many cryptographically based protection and authentication schemes are known, but are susceptible to the cryptographic keys being stolen, and/or the infrastructure for managing the cryptographic elements being compromised.   This project proposes to develop and demonstrate an autonomous multi-factor authentication system that would be implemented at the edges of the energy infrastructure. This system will leverage emerging next-generation wireless system speed, multiple frequency bands, low latency, and a range of in-location conditions to generate keys. Such a system may provide hardware, software, and algorithmic layers of security that can reduce risk, by keeping pathways for authentication of commands separate from the communication network that delivered them while also posing significant technology-related coordination barriers to entry for would-be bad actors.

Research Themes

The fundamental idea behind zero-trust networking is to push provenance, authentication, integrity, and policy checking to edge devices in the network. In a zero-trust network compromised network devices might impede legitimate traffic, but edge devices are not fooled by corrupted traffic. Design and installation of zero-trust technology introduces significant added complexity to security management on edge devices. A real challenge is understanding if and how zero-trust networking can be effectively deployed in energy system OT networks.

The classic Purdue model for OT systems defines system layers Enterprise, DMZ, Operational and Control, Process, and, Physical, conceptualized as a “North-South.” A layer is often treated as a single security zone, with security policies (like Biba) imposed between them. The problem is that better trust management is required within a layer, e.g., between RTUs within the Process layer. The challenge problem is to understand how to introduce so-called ‘East-West’ management of security.

A significant factor that leads to compromised computer systems is design and implementation flaws in the software components. Security must be “baked” in, and part of that involves the methodologies and testing that are used in the development of that software. The needs extend throughout the software’s entire lifecycle (requirements, planning, design,
development, testing, deployment, maintenance).

New devices, applications, and systems designed to improve security are often envisioned without considering the dependence that the security they provide has on the security of the new entity itself. For example, introduction of PKI within an OT network necessitates introduction of a certificate server, which, if compromised or inaccessible, inhibits the security apparatus that depends on the PKI. The challenge is to identify techniques, methodologies, and/or analyses that help one to identify, consider, or forestall the risks attendant with introduction of that technology.

Advancing software and hardware technologies for protecting energy systems from cyber malfeasance. Examples include:
• intrusion detection tailored to energy systems
• technologies for describing and analyzing cyber attacks and defenses in energy systems
• hardware support for device identification
• decision aids for application of security controls in energy systems
• security for energy system micro-electronics
• evaluation of access-control devices against formalized security policies typical in energy systems
• many others that are focused on protection in energy systems.

Society is on the cusp of a new energy ecosystem, driven by requirements for efficiency and decarbonization as well as advances in energy sources, electric transportation, and market models. Realizing this vision will require a secure digital infrastructure for secure interoperability, trust relations among multiple stakeholder communities, secure and verifiable transactions, integration of non-conventional generation at multiple grid scales, and secure cloud operations.